9.1. Explain various external cues and their relevance for animal internal balance;
9.2. Describe general cell signaling strategies and explain types of hormones and their signaling pathways in endocrine communication; and,
9.3. Use different hormone examples to explain their role in maintaining homeostasis in response to environmental or ecological cues.
The content of this chapter was adapted from the Concepts of Biology-1st Canadian Edition open textbook by Charles Molnar and Jane Gair and Anatomy and Physiology open textbook.